Computer Networking

Computer Networking is a process to connect two or more computers over shared network for exchanging data. These Networks are made by using Hardware and Software’s. Such as, Computers, Network Interfacing cards, operating software’s Microsoft, UNIX or Linux, cables and wires.

Network Types

  1. On the Basis of Geographical Divisions
    • LAN (Local Area Network) – It is limited to an area such as a college campus or an office building, and can communicate just three computers up to hundreds of computers.
    • WAN (Wide Area Network) – It is a Network made by combining a number of LAN Network. It can be made simple and easy or it can be very complicated.
    • Internet – It is a system of computers interconnecting to each other using IP and is spread across the whole world.
    • Intranet – This Network is similar to that of the Internet but it is used only as a private network. So the companies take this network for communication and sharing of information within the organization.
    • MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) – It is the network designed for the specific city.
  2. On Basis of Architecture
    • Peer to Peer – There is no dedicated server in this, so all computers act as client/server to each other. No one responsible to entire network. It is mainly used by small organizations where all users are located in the same area and there is no future expansion.
    • Client/Server – In this the most powerful computer is the server and others are client. It is the most competent method to manage the network, storing the data centrally and manage the entire database.
  3. On basis of Geometric Arrangement of computers
    • Ring System – All computers are connected to form a ring.
    • Star System – All computers are connected to a centrally located computer to form a star formation.
    • Bus System – All computers are connected to a single bus connected between them.

Protocols
These are the standards which enable computers to communicate with each other.
Some protocols are:

  1. TCP/IP – Point to Point protocol – Transmission control protocol/ Internet protocol – Backbone of Internet
  2. FTP – File Transfer Protocol – Used to send or receive files from remote hosts
  3. SMTP – Simple Mail Transfer Protocol – Used to send mails
  4. IPX/SPX – Internet Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange – For Novell Network operating system